Identification: Most adders are distinctively marked with a dark zigzag running down the length of the spine and an inverted â€˜Vâ€™ shape on the neck. Males are generally white or pale grey with a black zigzag. Females are pale brown with a darker brown zigzag. Adders are â€˜viviparousâ€™ â€“ they give birth to live young.
The Adder (Vipera berus) is the only venomous snake native to Britain. Adders will only use their venom as a last means of defence, usually if caught or stepped on. No one has died from an adder bite in Britain for over 35 years. With proper treatment, the worst effects in humans are nausea and drowsiness, followed by swelling and bruising in the area of the bite.
What is the risk to my dog?
The adder is a timid and non-aggressive snake, and will only bite when provoked. They hibernate over the winter and emerge in early spring as the temperature increases.
Unfortunately dogs are the animals most likely to be bitten due to their natural curiosity. But adder bites are rarely fatal in dogs.
The severity of the clinical signs varies and depends upon the location of the bite (facial bites are more serious), the size of the patient (small dogs are more likely to be seriously affected), the amount the dog moves after the bite (movement increases venom uptake).
The most common signs are significant swelling at the site of the bite, with systemic signs of depression and lethargy.
- Less than 5% of patients display more severe signs
- 96-97% make a full recovery, usually within five days
If your dog is bitten by an adder you should seek prompt veterinary attention. Do not attempt first aid measures such as applying a tourniquet- This is ineffective and can cause further harm to your pet. Carry your dog (rather than allow him to walk) to try and reduce the spread of venom around his body.Prevention
- Keep to the paths â€“ snakes tend to live in the undergrowth
- Use a short lead if walking in an area where adders might be present â€“ this will also protect the young of ground-nesting birds
- If you encounter an adder â€“ leave it alone and give it the opportunity to escape to safety
Adders are protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. It is an offence to kill, harm or injure them, and to sell or trade them in any way.
Pet obesity is a pressing issue for the UK’s 24.5 million pets. It is estimated that 45% (just over 11 million) of domestic pets are overweight or clinically obese. A recent study of pet owner perception showed that 63% of pet owners believed their pet to be the correct weight, despite other views from veterinary professionals. This is not surprising as weight gain happens over a long period of time and as the owner sees their pet every day, quite often the drastic change in weight goes unnoticed.The causes and contributing factors leading to obesity are:
1. Eating too much and excessive snacking
2. Exercising too little
3. Being less active with age
4. Breed Disposition
6. Certain medical conditions
Just as with people, an overweight or obese animal has a much greater risk of developing serious and/or debilitating health conditions.Major health risks and concerns include:
- Diabetes Mellitus
- Urinary crystals/stones and blockages
- Heart Disease
- Respiratory difficulties
- High Blood Pressure
- Cruciate Ligament Disease
- Skin/coat issues
- Decreased Life Expectancy of 2.5 years on average
Our pets are part of the family, of this there is no doubt, and it’s easy to want to express affection for a much-loved pet by rewarding them with tasty treats. Recent findings show that nearly half (48%) of pet owners are treating pets more than twice a day. Over the last five years there has been a 28% increase in cat and dog owners feeding pets table leftovers. These acts of apparent kindness can put your pets at risk; treating with leftover food is a leading cause of pet weight gain (approximately 78% for dogs).
It is important to note that animals have very different metabolisms to ourselves; feeding a dog the size of a West Highland White Terrier just 1 small cube of cheese a day is the same as a human eating 1 Big Mac! Equally, feeding a 5kg cat 1 glass of milk a day is the same as a adult human eating 3 Big Macs in one sitting!
1. Don’t guess: Follow packet feeding guidelines to determine how much food your pet should be getting daily. If you are unsure, then contact the food manufacturer directly or contact your veterinary practice.
2. Remember! Guidelines are just that, quite often we find that feeding amounts and exercise regimes need tweaking from pet to pet.
3. Weigh the food: Use scales to accurately weigh out your pets daily allowance of food; you can then separate this amount into the number of meals your pet needs per day.
4. Treat responsibly: Prepared treats are best aligned to you pets needs. Please remember that a treat should be earned and the calories must be deducted from your pets overall daily allowance.
5. Don’t overfeed: Be aware of how much you are feeding your pet as a family. In a busy household, it can be beneficial to run a rota system or have a check list so your pet is not being fed the same meal twice.
6. Exercise, exercise, exercise: Make sure you are exercising your pet in accordance with its needs. Most dogs should have at least 1 hour of exercise per day; just because you have a small breed of dog, does not mean it doesn’t need to be walked.
Cats should ideally have 40 minutes of high intensity activity per day. Please remember that cats are predators, and the way to get them to play is to let them use their hunting talents. Take a laser pointer and skitter it across the floor like a bug. Get a wand toy that looks like a bird and pretend to land and take off. In the wild, a cat will only stalk prey for about three to five minutes; after that, he’ll give up and go search somewhere else. So don’t try to play longer than the genetic capacity of the cat. When heâ€™s beginning to lose interest, change to another game or let him rest.
Pet rabbits need 4 hours of exercise per day, therefore rabbits that live outside require constant access to a large run in order to run, jump and play.
7. Monitor your pets weight: This will help you nip any worrying weight gain in the bud. You can weigh your pet at home, if they are small enough to fit on human scales, or if your morning walk brings you and your dog past your veterinary surgery, just nip in and use the scales in reception.Iâ€™ve got an overweight pet, HELP!
Here at Milton Keynes Veterinary Group, we offer free of charge nutrition clinics which are run by two of our RVN’s; Louise and Laura both have keen interests in pet nutrition and consult every Wednesday and Friday at our Walnut Tree Hospital site.
In the clinics the patient typically gets a full physical exam; they get weighed, measured and their Body Condition Score is assessed. A full history is also taken from the owner at the first appointment so a better understanding of the pet and owners’ lifestyle can be gained and an individual feeding and exercise plan that fits in with that lifestyle can be designed. The patients are typically seen back at the clinic every 4-6 weeks until they reach their healthy weight.
The nurses cater for most animals and in clinic we routinely see dogs, cats and rabbits of various breeds, shapes and sizes and sometimes the odd guinea pig or 2.
Louise says, I enjoy the owner and pet interaction and I feel that I get to know the pets and their owners very well as we see each other monthly for at least 6 months to a year. The most rewarding aspect of the clinics is seeing a pet become healthier and happier due to reaching its target weight and knowing that they will be living a longer life in their loving home.
With the recent cold snap many of us will be putting antifreeze in our cars. Antifreeze can be found in brake fluid, hydraulic fluids and even in decorative snow globes. Occasionally gardeners may also add it to their water features.
Ethylene Glycol is a common component of antifreeze. Ingestion in cats, of even small amounts, as little as a single teaspoon, or even from grooming contaminated fur, can be damaging.
Every year thousands of pets are accidentally poisoned with antifreeze. Onset of irreversible renal damage is rapid, requiring early aggressive treatment, but even then may not be successful in preventing problems.
Initial signs of antifreeze poisoning are depression and lethargy, with animals often appearing uncoordinated or drunk. These signs can last for a few hours. The next stages of poisoning are characterised by excessive thirst, vomiting, oral and gastric ulcers, and renal failure, followed ultimately by death.
If your cat has ingested antifreeze they must be taken to the veterinary surgery immediately. The main aim of treatment is to decrease the absorption of ethylene glycol from the stomach and intestine and to increase its excretion through the kidneys. Unfortunately the prognosis is extremely guarded, even with treatment.
*Use a less toxic alternative: Propylene Glycol antifreeze is more expensive but less toxic for pets and other wildlife, so if you have a cat, consider using this instead.
* Always keep antifreeze in a clearly labelled and sealed container, away from pets and their environment.
* Clear up any spillage immediately and make sure that your cat canâ€™t access that area until it is completely clean.
* Always dispose of antifreeze safely and responsibly.
If you are concerned that your cat may have been exposed to antifreeze then please contact your veterinary surgery immediately. The sooner veterinary treatment is received, the better their chances of survival.
The Necessary Bit
These recipes have no added salt or sugar or any ingredients that your dog should not safely be given. Please do bear in mind that if your dog has a sensitivity or intolerance, some of these recipes may not be appropriate. (For a Gluten free option replace flour below with coconut flour this will alter the consistency of the dough and may make using cookie cutters more difficult but is 100% gluten free.)
As there are no preservatives added to these recipes they are prone to develop mould however can be kept safely in a fridge for up to one week or frozen.
*Recent studies suggest that approximately 40% of pets are overweight; obesity is now the most common medical disorder of companion animals and a major welfare concern. It is now recognised that obesity is an important medical disease as it may predispose pets to a variety of other disorders including osteoarthritis, cardiorespiratory problems (the bodyâ€™s ability to supply oxygen to muscles), diabetes mellitus, constipation, dermatitis, anaesthetic risk and reduced life expectancy.The Fun Bit
CAUTION â€“ When baking any homemade treats for your dogs it is important to remember that a dogâ€™s sense of smell is massively better than ours (no science/vet bit here!) so to leave cookies cooling unattended is just asking for trouble!
Letâ€™s not be taking our obese dogs to MK Vet Group as a result of a regular over indulgence of treats â€“ these are supposed to be given in moderation.
Liver Cake- Ideal Training Treat
250g plain flour
Pre heat oven to 180Â°c, Gas Mark 4
In a blender, puree the liver and eggs.
Put the flour in a bowl and stir in the liver mixture. Add sufficient milk to make a â€˜spongyâ€™ texture. Pour into a baking tray lined with foil and cook for 50-60 minutes. Turn out when cold and cut into small cubes for great training treats.
Can be frozen in small bags to thaw as needed.
Sweet Potato and Carrot Cookies
260g Wholemeal flour
70g Corn Flour
1 medium sweet potato, peeled
1 Large carrot scrubbed
70g Sunflower hearts (if desired)
3 tblsp olive oil
Pre heat oven to 180Â°c, Gas Mark 4
Cover a baking tray with baking paper.
In a large bowl, combine the flours. In a food processor finely chop the carrot and potato, add to the flours and stir well. Add the sunflower hearts (if using), oil and water and combine into one ball of dough. Add more water if needed.
Turn out onto a floured surface (cling film over the work top is less messy) and knead until well combined and smooth. Roll out to Â½â€ thick and cut out shapes with cookie cutters. Place onto baking tray and bake for about 30 mins.
Turn each biscuit once and cook for a further 10 mins then place onto a wire tray to cool.
60g Wholemeal flour
100g grated cheese (preferably cheddar)
40g grated parmesan (if desired)
1 tblsp Olive oil
100 â€“ 150ml water
Pre heat oven to 180Â°c, Gas Mark 4
Cover a baking tray with baking paper.
Mix all of the ingredients except the oil and water together in a large bowl. Add the oil and stir. Add sufficient water to make the dough stick into one ball. Place onto a floured (cling film is less messy) and roll out gently until Â¼â€ â€“ Â½â€ thick.
Cut with a cookie cutter and place onto baking tray. Cook in the centre of the oven for 25-30 minutes or until they start to turn slightly golden brown.
Store in an airtight container and they may keep for weeks.
Christmas Apple and Cinnamon Cookies
4 cups of whole wheat flour (as well as a handful or two of some white flour which will not be added to the actual dough, but used for non-stick purposes).
70g of corn flour
2 tablespoons of vegetable oil
1 teaspoon of cinnamon
1 small apple
Pre heat oven to 160Â°c, Gas Mark 4
Combine all of the dry ingredients into a large bowl, mix with a spoon, and set aside. Grate the apple and then add water, vegetable oil and egg. Stir well. Add the dry ingredients in with the wet ingredients. Stir well until the mixture becomes a thick dough.
Turn out the dough on a lightly floured surface; roll out gently until Â¼â€ to Â½â€ thick. Cut with a Christmas themed cookie cutter and place on a lightly greased baking sheet.
These treats do not rise or expand during baking, so they can be placed fairly close together. Bake for approximately 15 to 20 mins, then place onto a wire tray to cool.
Festive Gingerbread Cookies
420 g Whole Wheat Flour
Â½ tsp ground ginger
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
55 ml vegetable oil
Preheat oven to 160Â°, Gas Mark 4
Lightly grease a baking sheet.
In a large bowl sift together the flour, cinnamon and ginger, mix in the oil, molasses and water then let it rest for 15 minutes. On a lightly floured surface roll out the dough until Â¼â€ thick. Cut out the cookies in Christmas themed cookie cutters and place onto the baking sheet. Cook for approximately 20 minutes or until firm.
Yummy Cat Treats
195g wheat or white flour
1 Â½ tsp Teaspoons catnip
40g powdered lactose free milk
120ml Lactose free milk
2 tbsp Lactose free butter, softened
1 tbsp honey
Stir dry ingredients together in a large bowl. Mix in wet ingredients to form a soft dough. You can add a little more flour if the dough is too sticky.
Turn out dough onto a non-stick baking sheet and roll out.
Carefully cut the dough into bite-sized squares. Bake for approximately 20 minutes or until golden brown. Remove treats from the tray, making sure to break them apart if necessary; let them cool on a wire tray. Store in an air-tight container or freeze and thaw as needed.
Apples are a source of dietary fibre which helps to eliminate toxins as well as containing minerals such as iron, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Also contained are beneficial antioxidants, vitamin A and vitamin C. A healthy dose of omega 3 and omega 6 in these treats contributes to a healthy skin and coat for your happy hound!
Wholemeal Flour is generally used because it is easier to digest for dogs than white flour and contains a natural pre-biotic which promotes healthy digestion. It also contains selenium â€“ which may help protect against lung cancer â€“ as well as potassium and zinc.
Ginger is fantastically healthy for a dogâ€™s digestive system: relieving stomach aches, nausea, wind and diarrhoea. It also reduces the risk of travel sickness for those dogâ€™s who struggle with car journeys.
Pumpkin is one of the most healthy foods a dog can eat. Packed with crucial minerals and vitamins, especially vitamins A, C and E. Pumpkin helps to maintain your dogâ€™s coat, skin and eyes and it strengthens the immune system as a whole. Itâ€™s a fantastic addition to your dogâ€™s diet!
Ground Flax Seed helps to fight against dry, flaky skin in dogs. It is also full of fibre, antioxidants and is another fantastic source of Omega 3 for your happy hound!
Diabetes is a growing problem not just in humans but also in our pets. Weight loss, excessive hunger and increased water intake are common signs.
As part of Pet Diabetes Month, our practice is offering free urine screening tests for diabetes. The procedure is both simple and pain free, and you can pick up a leaflet containing the test strip and do it yourself at home. Through this method, you may be able to detect if your dog or cat has diabetes (also known as sugar diabetes).
You will be provided with instructions on how to use the test when your pet goes to â€˜Take a Tinkleâ€™ â€“ itâ€™s very simple and you will have the result in around one minute.
Should your petâ€™s urine test positive, we can readily provide all the advice and assistance youâ€™ll need.